Methods in Applied Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry,
Soil Microbiology is a new branch of soil science. There are very few books dealing with practical aspects of soil microbiology. This book aims at presenting the methodologies of soil microbial activities which have direct and indirect effects on the growth and the yield of crops. The main objective in compilation of this manual is to highlight the beneficial soil microorganisms used as bio-fertilizers. The most significant of them are Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Rhizobium and VA mycorrhiza. This book contains assay of soil enzymes too. This book will be useful to students of biology, microbiology and agriculture.
A book on agriculture microbiology should include a study of the occurrence of microorganisms in the soil, their activities and their role in soil processes. It is this last phase which has been studied least and where the information available is far from satisfactory in explaining what is taking place in the soil. This is due largely to the limitations of the subject which depends for its advance on botany, zoology, bacteriology, chemistry,including biological and physical, and especially upon the advance of our understanding of the physical and chemical conditions of the soil. There are various kinds of audiences to which a book on soil micro-biology may appeal. There is the scientific farmer who may search for a better understanding of the processes taking place in the soil, those processes which control the growth of his crops and indirectly influence the growth of his animals. There is the agronomist, who is interested in the fundamental reactions controlling soil fertility.This book will be useful not only for students, teachers, and researchers but also for those interested in agriculture microbiology, plant pathology, ecology, environmental science, and agronomy.
The first edition of this book ‘‘SOIL MICROBIOLOGY’’ comprised of nine Chapters which include the following: 1. The characteristics of soil environment, 2. Characteristics of soil microbial floral and fauna, 3. Microbial activities in the soil: nitrogen cycle and mineral transformation, 4. Ecological relationship among soil pathogens, 5. Effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms, 6. Biodegradation and biofuel generations, 7. Microbiology of Mycorrhizae, 8. Plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria and 9. Microbiology of Rhizosphere. This book is meant for students of B.Sc., B.Sc. (Hons) and M.Sc. of Biological group such as Microbiology, Mycology, Virology, Bacteriology, Pathology, Plant Sciences, Zoology, Plant Breeding and other Biosciences.
This study characterized soil pollution (chlorine and lead concentration) in the Middle Mukuvisi Catchment in relation to primary production as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Part of the study area is characterized by sanitary landfills and waste dumps. The Middle Mukuvisi Catchment was stratified into two strata namely: Strata A upstream and Strata B downstream with respect to the centre of the landfilled area. NDVI was derived from the area’s Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image of 28 April 2007. It was concluded that chlorine and lead concentrations contained in the leachate from the landfills negatively affects both soil quality and primary production in the Middle Mukuvisi Catchment to some weak extent. However, the impacts of pollution on natural resources increase with time resulting in negative effects on entire ecological systems. Recommendations are that the environmental policy makers and planners should encourage continued research into soil pollution and its impact on aquatic resources.
No-till systems have been widely adopted by farmers in Australia over the past many years to reduce soil erosion, improve soil physical and chemical properties, conserve soil moisture and save on fuel costs. These changes in tillage practices can have a major influence on the ecology and management of weeds. This book provides information on the seed biology of important Australian weed species and underpinning knowledge of their response to tillage systems. There is also information on the effect of no-till on weed seedling emergence, seed bank persistence and herbicide behaviour.
Bangladesh needs more food production without deteriorating soil fertility & productivity.Tista Flood Plain soil in the North western region is being over exploited by the farmers to sustain their livelihood. Soil is loosing fertility, crop production capacity and organic contents, accelerating desertification in the perspective of crop production.Which deserves instant mitigation for agricultural sustainability to sustain the present and future generations with requisite amount of food, fodder,fuel and fiber.Green Manuring crops enhance crop production through amelioration of soils by increasing organic contents and nutrient up take by crops which protect the living soil from degradation. Scientific ecological studies of soil of the concerned area are indispensable for developing Environmental Management Plan through systematic approach to ascertain the favorable and sustainable soil fertility with maximizing crop production. Disclosed Soil ecology,crop quality, nutrient balance and benefit-cost ratio analyses through incorporation of green manuring crops C.juncea, S.aculeate,V.munga, V.radiata and I.sp in Fallow-T-Aman Rice and Mustard cropping Pattern are contents of this book.
The white button mushroom requires a casing layer that has specific physicochemical and microbiological properties which stimulate and promote the initiation of sporophore. However, slight attention has been given to the importance of microbial properties of casing materials. Casing layer supports beneficial microbial population that release growth stimulants, which are reportedly involved in stimulating the initiation of pin heads. This Study describe the effects of Pseudomonas spp. on the yield and nutritional value of cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and investigate the viability of Pseudomonas spp. and bacterial population in general during mushroom picking flushes.
Erica arborea is the dominant tree of the uppermost forest zone of the Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. Only six other woody species are found between 3.100 m and 3.600 m elevation at the investigated sites. Many E. arborea stands of the Simen Mountains are considered endangered due to insufficient regeneration attributed to changes in land use. In this study the influence of disturbances on the stand structure, species composition, density of mature tree, saplings and seedlings, as well as on the soil seed bank were examined and the causes of seedling mortality, micro site condition, seed germination requirement and survival of E. arborea were investigated at three sites. The overall vertical distribution of the seeds in the soil was similar in all stands, with the highest densities occurring in the upper five centimetres of soil and gradually decreasing densities with increasing depth. For the successful germination of E. arborea and Hypericum revolutum charred soil showed great performance, compared to other seedbed conditions (exposed mineral soil, sand, forest floor and nursery soils). Fire has a profound positive effect on Erica regeneration.
This book dealt about all the branches of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry namely Soil Fertility, Soil Pedology, Soil Physics, Soil Chemistry and Soil Microbiology. This book is highly useful to the under graduate students, post graduate students and Research fellows who are writing competitive examinations in agricultural sciences and also provide basic ideas and fundamental understanding about Soil Science to the various user.
Microbes are also essential tools in biotechnology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology. The elimination of a wide range of pollutants and wastes from the environment is an absolute requirement to promote a sustainable development of our society with low environmental impact. Biological processes play a major role in the removal of contaminants and biotechnology is taking advantage of the astonishing catabolic versatility of microorganisms to degrade/convert such compounds. New methodological breakthroughs in sequencing, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and imaging are producing vast amounts of information. With practical applications ranging from soil to environment, industry, wastewater treatment to food storage issues, clinical diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of medical conditions to decontamination of heavy metal exposures BACTERIAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY will prove indispensable to researchers and students alike