In order to reduce side effects of medical drugs, carrier systems have been proposed to limit their action to the intended site. Liposomes, made of natural phospholipids or fatty acids are most commonly applied for drug delivery purposes. However, the chemical sensitivity of ester bonds one the one hand, and pH-sensitivity of ionic surfactant assemblies on the other, disfavour these materials. Glycoside-based glycolipids, as natural product analogues, offer an alternative, as they are chemically stable, non-ionic and considered biocompatible. This book describes the preparation of niosomes, non-ionic liposomes, from synthetic glycolipids as well as physical-chemical studies of the self-assembly behaviour of these bio-surfactants. The reader is given an inside into the design of material for drug delivery purposes and related investigation techniques. These involve optical polarising microscopy, deuterium NMR spectroscopy, systematic surface tension studies and dynamic light scattering. The book is targeting both scientists looking for an introduction to drug delivery related research and professionals looking for new material for their research.
The evolution of the science and technology of niosomes as a drug carrier has passed through a number of distinct phases. Opinions of usefulness of these vesicles in drug delivery applications range from unsubstantial optimism to undeserved pessimism. The current deepening and widening of interest in niosomes speculates optimistically about some future applications of these non-ionic surfactant vesicles. The purpose of writing this review on niosomes as drug delivery vehicles was to compile the recent literature with special focus on their applications in drug delivery.
Niosomes are efficient carriers for controlled drug delivery, to entrap hydrophilic drugs in the larger interior aqueous layer, whereas, lipophilic drugs in the outer lipid bilayer. Since, the niosomes are biodegradable and non toxic and hence, a good carrier for targeting of therapeutic agents at the site of interest with reduced systemic toxicity. Ketoprofen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint conditions and musculoskeletal disorders, involving long term therapy. Ketoprofen has various side effects like gastritis, peptic ulcer and bleeding, along with short biological half life (0.5-2 hrs) which calls for frequent administration. Thus, a novel and controlled drug delivey system need to be developed in order to increase its therapeutic effects with reduced side effects.
This contribution book collects reviews and original articles from eminent experts working in the interdisciplinary arena of novel drug delivery systems and their uses in targeted drug carrier systems. From their direct and recent experience, the readers can achieve a wide vision on the new and ongoing potentialities of different drug delivery systems. Since the advent of analytical techniques and capabilities to measure particle sizes in nanometer ranges, there has been tremendous interest in the use of nanoparticles for more efficient methods of drug delivery. On the other hand, this reference discusses advances in the design, optimization, and adaptation of targeted drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular, pulmonary, genetic, and infectious diseases, and considers assessment and review procedures involved in the development of uses of Nano-science in pharmaceuticals.
Niosomes was developed and characterized for ocular drug delivery of diclofenac potassium. The present research study is a promising approach to improve corneal penetration and bio availability characteristics. Formulation also found to ensure a good entrapment efficiency and ocular bio availability of drug in-vivo. Niosome containing diclofenac potassium were prepared using surfactant and cholesterol in different ratio by Lipid film hydration technique. Niosomes were characterized For Entrapment efficiency, Particle size analysis, In-vitro drug release and In-vivo studies. Formulation with low cholesterol content which shown 82.1% Entrapment efficiency, 70.01% sustained release over a period of 10 h followed a non-fickian profile with zero order release profile. Scanning electron micrograph indicated that niosomes have a discrete spherical structure without aggregation. In-vivo study showed an availability of drug in aqueous humor for an extended time period even up to 8 hour and it showed a correlation with the release profile in-vitro. Niosome are considered the best as it showed good and high Entrapment efficiency and Vitro release with better bio availability.
For the drug delivery oral drug delivery is most convenient. For getting the maximum effect on the stomach or for particularly stomach targeted drug are must present in stomach for long time. So for these various approaches are available in this research work for gastroretentive drug delivery system. Methods, Advantages, Limitations and Applications for these drug delivery system is describes in this work. I done my best to cover all information. Thank you.
Cost-effective strategies for designing novel drug delivery systems that target a broad range of disease conditions In vivo imaging has become an important tool for the development of new drug delivery systems, shedding new light on the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, bioavailability, local concentration, and clearance of drug substances for the treatment of human disease, most notably cancer. Written by a team of international experts, this book examines the use of quantitative imaging techniques in designing and evaluating novel drug delivery systems and applications. Drug Delivery Applications of Noninvasive Imaging offers a full arsenal of tested and proven methods, practices and guidance, enabling readers to overcome the many challenges in creating successful new drug delivery systems. The book begins with an introduction to molecular imaging. Next, it covers: In vivo imaging techniques and quantitative analysis Imaging drugs and drug carriers at the site of action, including low-molecular weight radiopharmaceuticals, peptides and proteins, siRNA, cells, and nanoparticles Applications of imaging techniques in administration routes other than intravenous injection, such as pulmonary and oral delivery Translational research leading to clinical applications Imaging drug delivery in large animal models Clinical applications of imaging techniques to guide drug development and drug delivery Chapters are based on a thorough review of the current literature as well as the authors' firsthand experience working with imaging techniques for the development of novel drug delivery systems. Presenting state-of-the-technology applications of imaging in preclinical and clinical evaluation of drug delivery systems, Drug Delivery Applications of Noninvasive Imaging offers cost-effective strategies to pharmaceutical researchers and students for developing drug delivery systems that accurately target a broad range of disease conditions.
Local Drug Delivery System is an emerging trend in the field of Periodontology.Continues research is going-on and newer drugs are getting added as local drug delivery system.Eradicating microorganisms from the periodontal pocket is a crucial task in treating periodontitis. For treating periodontal diseases targeting of an anti-infective agent to infection sites with effective levels for a sufficient time while concurrently evoking minimal or no side effects is needed.Novel therapeutic agents are being improvised in the arena of local drug delivery system to ensure maximum benefit. This book will help both Under-graduate and Post-graduate students as well as the general practitioners in the field of dentistry to know the details about local drug delivery systems and local drug delivery agents being used for periodontal diseases and other oral infections in detail.
A promising strategy to overcome these problems involves the development of suitable drug carrier system. The In vivo fate of the drug is no longer mainly determined by the properties of the drug, but by the carrier system, which permit a controlled and localized release of the active drug according to the specific needs of the therapy. The size of the carrier depends on the desired route of administration and ranges from few nanometers to micrometers (implants). Implants and microparticles are too large for drug targeting and intravenous administration. Therefore, colloidal carriers have attracted increasing attention during recent years. Investigated systems include nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, liposomes, niosomes, nanosuspensions, micelles, and soluble polymer-drug conjugates.
Drug delivery through skin is an alternative route of drug delivery that is getting a fresh impetus from constantly evolving techniques for penetration enhancement and various techniques for drug development. It promises better and sustained absorption bypassing side effects and extensive metabolism encountered in conventional drug delivery techniques. A vast array of compounds and physical techniques are being used for penetration enhancement with a condition of reversible and unidirectional enhancement of penetration to ensure therapeutic and safety aspects. This work reviews the current state of permeation enhancement techniques, pros and cons of each technique and summarizes the potential offered by transdermal drug delivery system in the current era of biotechnological products.
Target drug delivery system is a special form of drug delivery system where the pharmacologically active agent or medicament is selectively targeted or delivered only to its site of action or absorption and not to the non-target organs or tissues or cells. Targeted drug delivery implies for selective and effective localization of pharmacologically active moiety at pre identified (preselected) target in therapeutic concentration, while restricting its access to non-target normal cellular linings, thus minimizing toxic effects and maximizing therapeutic index. Targeting of drugs to special cells and tissues of the body without their becoming a part of systemic circulation is a very novel idea. If a drug can be administered in a form such that it reaches the receptor sites in sufficient concentration without disturbing in extraneous tissue cells. Targeted drug delivery is a method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others. . There are many examples of drug delivery system by which we can target the drug to specific tissues/ cells i.e. liposomes, prodrug, niosomes, Mab etc.
Any drug given in the form of parenteral dosage form like emulsion, suspension, solution etc. it is not best suited for the long time therapy. Long time drug release profile in controlled manner achieved by nano particle which is difficult by parenteral suspension or parenteral solution. Nano particulate drug delivery is the novel concept now a days. Nano particulate drug delivery is used to get maximum bio-availability for the potent drug with minimal side effect. Nano particulate drug delivery is also useful for maintaining the drug concentration in therapeutic window for the drug having narrow therapeutic window. Nano particulate drug delivery having disadvantage like cost effective even though it is widely useful because of its ease of preparation and suitability with most of drugs and excipients.