Salt marshes and mangrove forests, the intertidal wetlands of the world's coastlines, provide key ecological services to all areas of the globe. This cutting-edge, richly illustrated book introduces the essential elements of coastal wetlands and their applications. The book opens by introducing coastal oceanography, the physical features of wetlands, their ecology, and human impacts upon them, giving all students the necessary background for wetlands studies. It then presents detailed case studies from around the world with extensive illustrations, supplying a wider, global-scale picture of wetlands geomorphology and biodiversity. The final chapters discuss some unique applications of coastal wetlands, including geological monitoring, uses in biotechnology and agriculture, and various experimental mesocosms. This is ideal as supplementary reading to support students on a wide range of earth and life science courses, from environmental science, ecology and palaeoecology to geomorphology and geography. It will also be a valuable interdisciplinary reference for researchers.
Over the past decade, there has been a rapid increase in industrialization and human population growth along marine and coastal area of the world. This increase does much to further the well-being of the people and it also leaves severe impacts on coastal and marine environment. Approaching environmental science from a marine and coastal water perspective requires comprehensive background in the issues of geology, chemistry, biology, and in many cases atmospheric science to prevent and minimize adverse impacts of different types of pollution. This book is focused on environmental issues which include assessment of environmental impact and analysis of the different types of pollution and their effects on the coastal and marine environment. Moreover, it is provided for students and scientists in marine environment and/or ecosystem ecology, and some basic knowledge of marine biological research. Because of the diversity of illustrations and tabular information used in the examples of marine and coastal water studies, as well as the comprehensive bibliographic sources. I hope that, this book to be interesting and useful for reader, and I welcome your comments and feedback.
Thickly populated West Bengal coast adjacent to tide dominated Ganges/Sunderban Delta is facing problem due to unplanned fishing tourism industries or exploitation of resources. Episodic physical events like storm damage, climatic change, sea level rise, coastal erosion is causing great societal problems and needs close monitoring. Planimetric changes of beaches were monitored by Profiling with study of coastal processes,sedimentological and mineralogical studies in the laboratory. Erosional accretional trend were calculated from the growth rate of polychate burrow Diopatra cuprea. The causes of erosion were highlighted and preventive measures were suggested. The different aspects of Coastal Zone Mangements have been clarified for sustainable development. The bewildering array of trace fossils and biogenic structures indicated application potential of Ichnology in solving geological or environmental problems. Relict mangrove forest in the beaches is an indication of paleoshoreline.The present work is an excellent example of through understanding of the various scientific thoughts in solving societal problems in the coastal zone and their solutions by various geological studies.
In coastal area interactions among air, water and soil take place. The nature of water and amplitude of the tidal regimes resulted in the poor understanding.The present study focused on a segment of the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Soils collected from the three islands were found to be rather similar as regard to chemical properties, although some variables differed significantly among the islands. No general pattern of significant variation was found location wise. Element concentrations of leaves of Sonneratia apetala showed significant variations among the islands. In most cases, location 2 of the river Buragauranga had higher values of the variables. Among the phytoplankton genera, 8 belong to class Bacillaiophyceae. Dominant phytoplankton was Trachelomonas sp. and was found in all three locations. Phytoplankton diversity was high in location 2. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Trachelomonas sp. has negative significant correlation with principal component one but have positive relation with Coscinodiscus sp. This book will help in understanding the coastal zone as holistic approaches have been taken and help in conservation and management of coastal resources.
Wetlands are ecotones or transitional zones that occupy an intermediate position between dry land and open water. More recently, society has begun to understand the functions of wetlands and the values humans obtain from them. Wetlands help regulate water levels within watersheds, improve water quality, reduce flood and storm damages, provide important fish and wildlife habitat and support hunting, fishing and other recreational activities. Wetlands are important features in watershed management. Wetlands support a wide array of flora and fauna and deliver many ecological, climatic and societal functions. Scientists often refer to wetlands as the "kidneys" of the earth and forests as the "lungs" of the earth Kerala is well known for its wetlands. These wetlands provided livelihood to the residents in the area in the forms of agricultural produce, fish, fuel, fiber, fodder, and a host of other day-to-day necessities. Infrastructure development in the form of roads, railways, and other lines of communication fragmented the contiguity of the wetlands, and destroyed extensive tracts of coastal vegetation thereby upsetting the entire complex ecology.
Marine ecology is the branch of ecology dealing with the interdependence of all organisms living in the ocean, in shallow coastal waters, and on the seashore. The marine environment for all organisms consists of non-living, abiotic factors and living, biotic factors.Mangrove forests provide diverse goods and services and many communities are dependent on these formations for survival. In spite of this, only a small portion of global mangrove resources is currently under any active management. However, considerable information and knowledge on the sustainable management of this forest type is available. Using simple, easy-to-follow silvicultural regimes, forests such as the Sundarbans and Matang have been managed for several decades for sustainable production. If we practice the sustainable integrated approach to greening our coast, surely our offspring’s will be saved from disasters like Tsunami, cyclone and sea level rise. At the same time we will ensure the sustainable wealth of fishery resources and livelihood security of fishing communities.
The dominance of Green Revolution Agriculture practices in coastal areas increased the ion concentration in soil as well as in irrigation water and thus reducing yield both quantitatively and qualitatively and culminated in increased salinity of water and soil. In response to these problems, the emerging Agro-Ecology paradigm suggests organic farming through farmers participation. Based on the local conditions and available natural resources, System of Rice Intensification (SRI) combined with organic inputs appear to be more promising for paddy cultivation in saline soils in the coastal Agro-Ecosystems. These organic farming practices facilitate lower ion concentration and improve the soil ecology and paddy productivity. SRI involves low input (water & nutrient), higher output technology, evolved in Madagascar in 1970s, spread to South and South East Asian countries and currently becoming popular among South Indian farmers.Need for farmers's participation is articulated in terms of efficiency and/or cost-effectiveness, equity in distribution of benefits, sustainability and empowerment of the farmer's community. Hence, the present study was planned through farmer's participation
Wetlands are the most threatened ecosystems of the world. In a country like Bangladesh which is burdened with overpopulation and a constant increasing demand of food production, the wetlands and its aquatic plants are the most vulnerable items in view of the agricultural land accretion processes. But on the other hand protection of wetland ecosystems with its biodiversity must also be ensured for a safe environment. In the backdrop of this, study related to growth, regeneration and autecology of four selected wetland macrophytes, namely, Euryale ferox Salisb., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Neptunia natans (L.f.) Druce and Cryptocoryne ciliata (Roxb.) Fisch. ex Wydler. were undertaken. In the present study all the four wetland macrophytes showed unique life cycle. Most of the studied species showed significant relationship with climatic factors in respect to their growth and regeneration. Scopes still exist to carry out similar meso-scale growth studies on threatened aquatic macrophytes. Besides some of their fruits, rhizomes, leaves, etc. should be investigated biochemically for finding new chemicals of pharmacological interest.
The vegetation types are naturally growing in the different habitats of the different countries of the world. The distribution of these vegetation types varies widely depending upon the climatic features of these habitats. Mangrove forests occur only in the coastal swamps of the warm climates, never grow in those of the cold areas. This book presents a comprehensive repost on the ecology of the mangrove forest along the coastal swamps of all araba worlds countries occurring on the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the Mediterranean Sea in the north the Red Sea and the Arab Gulf in the east. The environmental features and economic values of the mangrove forests and their propagation are also discussed.
Pollution and scarcity of groundwater becomes one of the most common environmental problems in countries the Mediterranean region Natural and anthropogenic factors have impacts on the deterioration of the quality and quantity of groundwater. For determination the situation of groundwater (quantity and suitability) for domestic use, the geological and hydrogeo-logical characteristics had been investigated (Cl concentration in the pumped water and water level maps have been drawn and their relationship with distribution of abstraction rates for pumping wells. Rainfall distribution maps and aquifer lithological cross sections had been drawn also to determine their roles on the groundwater situation. Long term of ground water exploitation, climate change combined with decreasing quantity of rainfall and in addition to the aquifer lithological structure. All these factors are playing very important roles in the groundwater deterioration around the world.
Ornithology has traditionally emphasized the systematics, anatomy and distribution of birds. The study of birds to find ways to conserve restore and maintain the diversity of birds and ecology. In large part, this book is designed to maintain diversity, ecology and indicate the threats to birds. Over goal is to provide some feeling for the excitement, engendered by recent research on birds. We also want to promote a sense of urgency for the need to protect birds and wetlands. It is critical that a high diversity of birds continue to be around to fascinate future generations.