The coastal zone is one of the most dynamic environments on our planet and is much affected by global change, especially sea-level rise. Coastal environments harbour valuable ecosystems, but they are also hugely important from a societal point of view. This book, which draws on the expertise of 21 leading international coastal scientists, represents an up-to-date account of coastal environments and past, present and future impacts of global change. The first chapter of the book outlines key principles that underpin coastal systems and their behaviour. This is followed by a discussion of key processes, including sea level change, sedimentation, storms, waves and tides, that drive coastal change. The main part of the book consists of a discussion of the main coastal environments (beaches, dunes, barriers, salt marshes, tidal flats, estuaries, coral reefs, deltas, rocky and glaciated coasts and coastal groundwater), and how these are affected by global change. The final chapter highlights strategies for coping with coastal change. Readership: final year undergraduate and postgraduate-level students on coastal courses in a wide range subjects, including geography, environmental management, geology, oceanography and coastal/civil engineering. The book will also be a valuable resource for researchers and applied scientists dealing with coastal environments. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/masselink/coastal
Sir Arthur Tansley was the leading figure in ecology for the first half of the 20th century, founding the field, and forming its first professional societies. He was the first President of the British Ecological Society and the first chair of the Field Studies Council. His work as a botanist is considered seminal and he is recognized as one of the giants of ecology throughout the world. Ecology underpins the principles and practices of modern conservation and the maintenance of biodiversity. It explains the causes of, and offers solutions to, problems of climate change. Yet ecology is a young science, barely 100 years old. Its origins lie in phytogeography, the naming and mapping of plants. Shaping Ecology is a book about a multi-faceted man whose friends included Bertrand Russell, Marie Stopes, Julian Huxley, GM Trevelyan, and Solly Zuckerman. Historical context is provided by Tansley's family for his parents moved in the Fabian-socialist world of John Ruskin and Octavia Hill, both instrumental in the foundation of the National Trust. While Britain was relatively slow to protect its green spaces and wildlife, it did establish in 1913 the first professional Ecological Society in the world. Tansley was its President. Organising the British Vegetation Committee and initiating a series of International Phytogeographic Excursions, he changed phytogeography into ecology.
Part of the Zoological Society of London's Conservation Science and Practice Series, Applied Population and Community Ecology evaluates theory in population and community ecology using a case study of feral pigs, birds and plants in the high country of south-eastern Australia. In sequence, the book reviews the relevant theory and uses long-term research over a quarter of a century on the population ecology of feral pigs and then community ecology of birds and plants, to evaluate the theory. The book brings together into one volume, research results of many observational, experimental and modelling studies and directly compares them with those from related studies around the world. The implications of the results for future wildlife management are also discussed. Intended readers are ecologists, graduate students in ecology and wildlife management and conservation and pest managers.
Coastal-Marine Conservation: Science and Policy introduces students and managers to complex conservation and management issues facing coastal nations of the world, their citizens, and international and non-governmental organizations. It aims to reduce complexity and inspire a greater consensus for more effective conservation action. Presents the coastal realm as a heterogeneous, diverse ecosystem of exceptionall high biological diversity and productivity, and where conservation challenges are most difficult and urgent Examines the critical issues facing coastal-marine conservation and the mechanisms for dealing with them Reviews the basic science required for addressing conservation issues by presenting the coastal realm as a land-sea ecosystem of global significance, and by reviewing the natural-history features of coastal-marine organisms Presents three ecologically and latitudinally distinct «real-world» case studies to create a context for understanding of regional systems, their cultures, and their conservation: the polar Bering Sea, the temperate Chesapeake Bay, and the tropical Bahamas Makes apparent the ecological stresses on the coastal realm, increasing rates of ecosystem change, loss of ecosystem health, and fragmented governance Synthesizes the major challenges for conservation and suggests future policy and management strategies, including ecosystem management and needs for achieving sustainability and addressing the environmental debt This book is intended for undergraduates and graduates taking courses in coastal and marine conservation and management, as well as those actively engaged in coastal-marine conservation activities, and gives the reader a clear steer to future management approaches. References additional to those in the book are available at http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/pdf/ray_references.pdf The artwork is available to download at http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ray/
Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/vandermaarelfranklin/vegetationecology. Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is a comprehensive, integrated account of plant communities and their environments. Written by leading experts in their field from four continents, the second edition of this book: covers the composition, structure, ecology, dynamics, diversity, biotic interactions and distribution of plant communities, with an emphasis on functional adaptations; reviews modern developments in vegetation ecology in a historical perspective; presents a coherent view on vegetation ecology while integrating population ecology, dispersal biology, soil biology, ecosystem ecology and global change studies; tackles applied aspects of vegetation ecology, including management of communities and invasive species; includes new chapters addressing the classification and mapping of vegetation, and the significance of plant functional types Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is aimed at advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers and teachers in plant ecology, geography, forestry and nature conservation. Vegetation Ecology takes an integrated, multidisciplinary approach and will be welcomed as an essential reference for plant ecologists the world over.
Coal Geology, second edition, offers a thoroughly revised and updated edition of this popular book which provides a comprehensive overview of the field of coal geology. Coal Geology covers all aspects of coal geology in one volume, bridging the gap between the academic aspects and the practical role of geology in the coal industry. The object of the book is to provide the reader with a with a description of the origins of coal together with the physical and chemical properties of coal and coal petrology before proceeding to cover all areas of coal exploration, production and use. Bridges the gap between academic aspects of coal geology and the practical role of geology in the coal industry Examines historical and stratigraphical geology, together with mining, environmental issues, geophysics and hydrogeology and the marketing of coal Defines worldwide coal resource classifications and methods of calculation Addresses the alternative uses of coal as a source of energy, together with the environmental implications of coal usage Includes improved illustrations including a colour section Offers a global approach covering expanding fields in America, China and India The truly global approach, drawn from the international experiences of the author, recognizes the growing role of coal use in emerging markets. With fully revised coverage of the latest modelling techniques, environmental legislation, equipment and recording methods, the second edition offers a truly invaluable resource for anyone studying, researching or working in the field of coal geology, geotechnical and mining engineering and environmental science.
The single most important book on wetlands, newly expanded and updated Wetlands is the definitive guide to this fragile ecosystem, providing the most comprehensive coverage and in-depth information available in print. Recently updated and expanded, this latest edition contains brand new information on Wetland Ecosystem Services and an updated discussion on Wetland, Carbon, and Climate Change and Wetland Creation and Restoration. Due to popular demand, the authors have brought back five streamlined chapters on wetland ecosystems that had been removed from previous editions, and provided more robust ancillary materials including an online color photo gallery, PowerPoint slides, and several video case studies. As nature's kidneys, wetland ecosystems help the environment process toxins and excess fertilizers and maintain the relative health of our aquatic ecosystems. As the understanding of their importance grows, their management and ecology have gained increased attention and have become an area of professional specialization over the past two decades. This book gives readers a solid understanding of wetlands, how they work, what they do, and why the Earth can't live without them. Understand wetlands' role in the ecosystem, from local to global scales Appreciate the fact that wetlands may be the most logical and economical way to sequester carbon from the atmosphere Discover the unique characteristics that make wetlands critically important for improving water quality, reducing storm and flood damage, and providing habitat to support biodiversity Learn how wetlands are being managed or destroyed around the globe but also how we can create and restore them Examine the ways in which climate change is affecting wetland ecosystems and wetland ecosystems affect climate change Wetlands are crucial to the health of the planet, and we've only begun to realize the magnitude of the damage that has already been done as we scramble to save them. A generation of ecologists, ecological engineers, land use planners, and water resource managers worldwide owe their knowledge of the wetlands to this book – for the next generation to follow in their footsteps, Wetlands 5th edition is the quintessential guide to these critical systems.
A comprehensive and fascinating account of electrical and electronics history Much of the infrastructure of today's industrialized world arose in the period from the outbreak of World War I to the conclusion of World War II. It was during these years that the capabilities of traditional electrical engineering—generators, power transmission, motors, electric lighting and heating, home appliances, and so on—became ubiquitous. Even more importantly, it was during this time that a new type of electrical engineering—electronics—emerged. Because of its applications in communications (both wire-based and wireless), entertainment (notably radio, the phonograph, and sound movies), industry, science and medicine, and the military, the electronics industry became a major part of the economy. Dawn of the Electronic Age?explores how this engineering knowledge and its main applications developed in various scientific, economic, and social contexts, and explains how each was profoundly affected by electrical technologies. It takes an international perspective and a narrative approach, unfolding the story chronologically. Though a scholarly study (with sources of information given in endnotes for engineers and historians of science and technology), the book is intended for the general public.?Ultimately, it tells the story of the development of a new realm of engineering and its widespread applications during the remarkable and tragic period of two world wars and the decades in between.
What is the world of the 21st century like now that the centrality of the West is no longer given? How were the societies and cultures of today's world together with their interconnections forged, and what is driving human society in our times? In short, what is the state of the world today as we enter the second decade of the 21st century? This is the first book which deals with planetary human society as whole. It is a beginner's guide to the world after the West and after globalization, compact, portable, and jargon-free. It is aimed at everybody who, even with experience, has kept a beginner's curiosity of the world, to everybody who does not know everything they want to know about it, about the good, the evil, and the salvation of the world. It lays bare the socio-cultural geology of the world, its major civilizations, its historical waves of globalization, its family-sex-gender systems, and its pathways to modernity. It outlines the dynamics of the world, its basic drives, the contours of its most important global and sub-global processes. It presents the big team players on the world stage, populous as well as rich countries, missions and movements as well corporations and cities. It traces the life-courses of men and women on all the continents, from their birth and childhood to their old age, and their funeral.
Identifying efficient solutions to protect coastal regions from marine pollution requires expertise from a range of specialties and strategic approaches. This book gathers information on the impact of oil spills at a coastal level from different experts’ points of view, identifying synergies between domains such as mathematics, numerical modeling, mechanics, biology, economics and law. The collaborative research presented here is based on the 4th International Workshop on Anti-Pollution and Marine Coastal Water Pollution, held in La Rochelle, France at the Engineering School EIGSI, in April 2012. The areas addressed include: materials and structures (fluid-structure and capture interaction, cable and membrane equations, optimization); coastal hydrodynamics (computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis of shallow water equations, analytical and numerical derivatives); biological impacts (biology, multivariate analysis, indicators); and economics and law (compensation costs, insurance coverage, coastal vulnerability).
This fully updated new edition introduces the core concepts, central thinkers, and major works of the burgeoning field of political ecology. Explores the key arguments and contemporary explanatory challenges facing the sub-discipline Provides the first full history of the development of political ecology over the last century and its theoretical underpinnings Considers the major challenges facing the field now and for the future Study boxes introduce key figures in the development of the discipline and summarize their most important works Fully updated to include recent events, such as the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill, as well as both urban and rural examples, from the developed and underdeveloped world
It is difficult to imagine that the statistical analysis of compositional data has been a major issue of concern for more than 100 years. It is even more difficult to realize that so many statisticians and users of statistics are unaware of the particular problems affecting compositional data, as well as their solutions. The issue of ``spurious correlation'', as the situation was phrased by Karl Pearson back in 1897, affects all data that measures parts of some whole, such as percentages, proportions, ppm and ppb. Such measurements are present in all fields of science, ranging from geology, biology, environmental sciences, forensic sciences, medicine and hydrology. This book presents the history and development of compositional data analysis along with Aitchison's log-ratio approach. Compositional Data Analysis describes the state of the art both in theoretical fields as well as applications in the different fields of science. Key Features: Reflects the state-of-the-art in compositional data analysis. Gives an overview of the historical development of compositional data analysis, as well as basic concepts and procedures. Looks at advances in algebra and calculus on the simplex. Presents applications in different fields of science, including, genomics, ecology, biology, geochemistry, planetology, chemistry and economics. Explores connections to correspondence analysis and the Dirichlet distribution. Presents a summary of three available software packages for compositional data analysis. Supported by an accompanying website featuring R code. Applied scientists working on compositional data analysis in any field of science, both in academia and professionals will benefit from this book, along with graduate students in any field of science working with compositional data.